Tag Archives: Production

Polypropylene Bags Production Process

Manufacturing of tapes:

The granules of polypropylene bags are fed to the extruder hopper, where they are plasticized and the melt flow is passed through a T-die. Film thus produced is slit into the form of tapes. These strips are then oriented by stretching them under heated condition at a predetermined ratio. Finally the tapes are wound on cheese winders. It is also possible to produce films by blown film process, instead of T-die extrusion. The compounding ingredients used along with polypropylene and HDPE are generally CaCO3 and master batch.

Weaving of tapes into fabrics:

The tapes so obtained are fed to circular looms/ flat looms and woven into tubular or flat fabric respectively.

Lamination or extrusion coating:

This step is not necessary for all types of polypropylene bags as in case of jute sacks. Therefore, calculations were made without taking into account the energy/emission in this process. Fabric produced may require to be coated. HDPE woven sacks are laminated with LLDPE/LDPE while in case of polypropylene bags; lamination is done by lamination grade polypropylene.

Fabric roll is mounted on unwinding roll from where it passes through two rolls over which T-die connected to the extruder is located. The melt of the material, which is to be coated on the fabrics comes through the T-Die as an extrudate and coats the woven fabric. It is then cooled under pressure and wound.

Cutting and stitching of polypropylene bags:

In the next stage the unlaminated fabric as produced earlier is cut, reversed manually, and the bottom is stitched. Then it is printed as per the requirement of the customer.

Primary properties of polypropylene used in producing woven sacks are their chemical inertness and inertness to metabolic processes.

Polypropylene used for the manufacturing of polypropylene bags meets the requirements stipulated in BIS standard IS 10910. The grade of additives incorporated in polypropylene complies with the FDA: CFR title 21, 177.1520 olefin polymers. Additive incorporated in polypropylene also conform to the positive list of constituents as prescribed in BIS standard IS: 10909.

Types of Production Planning

If you work in a manufacturing plant as a supervisor you have heard the words “production planning” many times. This is the procedure that they use to decide just how many goods to manufacture. For the company to be successful efficiency is important. They do not want to over produce products and then have them just sit in the warehouse. That is profits down the drain, so to speak. A company wants to make sure that they are producing enough products to meet the demands. There are many different forms of production planning that goes under various titles in the world of business. There are three main types that many businesses use.

Batch production planning

This type of production planning involves producing many identical individual products from the same batch of raw material. For example, a seamstress would take some cloth and produce five individual identical dresses. In a manufacturing plant that produces many different products this can advance the efficiency of the employees and machines to produce one large batch of an individual product at the same time. In a factory, for example, the machines may be set up to produce a group of peas in cans, followed by a group corn in cans. Setting up the machines to follow this schedule is more efficient than changing the machines to produce a can one at a time as they are needed.

Job-or project-based production planning

This type is generally used in smaller businesses where one team or one person does the production of services or goods. A jewelry maker that makes custom engagement and wedding rings is an example of this type of production planning. Film production is a team so this is the type of planning they would use. Job-and project planning is very customizable to meet the requirements of the business and the customer. It should not be used if you are creating a flow of production that is consistent.

Continuous or mass production planning

This one is used often to create products that are massed-produced and generally used by large factories to produce a steady flow of products. For this process to be cost-efficient, a demand for this product must be regular. The production services must also be streamlined. This is so the products go from one-step of the making the product to the next step effortlessly. This requires demanding pre-planning of production flow and layout.

In conclusion

In production planning, determining the right method for a business will normally depend on mathematical calculations and market forecasting. Some companies will use production planning software to capitalize on the company’s production capacity and to measure planning strategies cost-effectiveness. Through control, the methods of planning are often made to make the most of on the company’s potential.

Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Steps for Production of Medicines

The pharmaceutical manufacturing unit follows a series of steps to produce effective medicines. All this points are very important and the total production process will be complete only when all these steps in production are perfectly completed. The manufacturing steps contain the design conception, withdrawal, dispensation, manufacture, alteration, liberation, packaging and storage. All this steps have to be followed by all Pharmaceutical manufacturing departments to produce effective medicines and many other pharmaceutical goods. This article highlights the important steps to be followed in producing useful medicines by all the pharmaceutical plants.

The pharmaceutical manufacturing process is divided into two parts. The first unit is primary processing level and the second unit is secondary processing level. The first processing level mainly includes the improvement of effective drug component. Certain research facilities managed by pharmaceutical graduates to supply useful pharmaceutical components also included in this stage.

The second part in secondary processing level of this manufacturing process is that mostly includes the change in pharmaceutical active components into effective medicines. So, with this process we can say that this the final step in drug processing, which is the most important in development of the products which can be used as pharmaceutical products in many healthcare organizations and are used for various health disorders by patients.

The final pharmaceutical products that are manufactured are in various forms like liquid, semi-solid and solid. The solid forms are capsules, tablets, creams, ointments etc. Pharmaceutical products in liquid form include solutions, gels, Suspensions, emulsions and injectables. Several external use only products like inhalers and aerosols which mainly contain butane and chlorofluorocarbons. We can conclude that pharmaceutical manufacturing units have added a lot for the medical field and helped mankind in fighting with several health disorders and are still trying to contribute more and more towards the medical world.

China Mass Production Inferiority Strikes Acai Berries As Well?

Every product you buy these days, or at least some variant of it, seems to have been made in China. With a population that dwarfs that of any other nation in the world and rather relaxed labor standards, China has become the global center of manufacturing for mass production. And just when you thought that Acai berries, which are indigenous to the Amazon rainforests, could not involve the Chinese mega-machine, Acai berry extract products are now somehow being produced there.

But mass production does not often translate into superior quality, and this is certainly the case with Chinese Acai berry products.

Because of the popularity of Acai products in today’s health and supplement-rich market, many bargain-minded manufacturers have outsourced their Acai berry farming to China. This translates into Acai palm trees, that normally thrive only along the banks of the Amazon river, being grown in Chinese harvesting greenhouses to accelerate the amount of Acai berries that one can yield versus relying solely on Brazil’s limited supply.

What these manufacturers do not understand, however, is that the Acai palm alone cannot account for the amazing properties of its fruit. The nutrients that eventually make their way into Acai berries are drawn from the water of the Amazon river, whose unique properties are what make the Acai berry so incredible. The result? Chinese-grown Acai berries are far less nutritious and effective.

Even more alarming is that Chinese farmers rely on insecticides and various types of fertilizers to grow the Acai palms, which could lead to chemical poisoning and other ailments associated with the use of these artificial methods.

Too many dishonest manufacturers are even now taking advantage of hapless consumers by putting these inferior products on the market, hoping that people will snap up anything that contains the word “Acai” in its list of ingredients.

Be careful where you buy your Acai berry extract products. Prioritize quality over quantity, and make sure you only order the genuine article, instead of a cheap Chinese knockoff.

Production Linearity – Eliminating the "Hockey Stick Syndrome"

Why is linear production so important? It’s simple; “It’s where the money is!” Scrap, rework, overtime and poor quality are all non-value-added costs that increased as a function of the famous “Hockey Stick Syndrome”. That is, as we delay our production schedule completions toward the end of the month (or worse, to the end of the financial quarter), there is a tremendous pressure put on Manufacturing that produces shop floor chaos that generates significant non-value-added cost. We usually end up making the production plan and financial forecast because the “Knights in shining armor” come through with a last minute, heroic performance. But, at what cost? Some companies actually give up 10 to 20% of their potential profit margins because they have developed and fostered a manufacturing team that perpetuates the “Hockey Stick Syndrome”.

Companies that continue to live with the end-of-the-quarter “push” will never achieve their full growth and profit potentials. How do you smooth schedules and achieve linear production? The challenge is in how to keep daily pressure on the critical path of schedule achievement. We need to have the visibility of all critical tasks and milestones from day one of the quarter and create team awareness and commitment to their timely achievement. Our manufacturing team must become sensitive and proactive in the execution of early production planning details and they must learn to apply their creativity and energy in a linear style. To be sure, up front planning and execution can yield amazing manufacturing results and lead to profitability beyond expectations.

The most effective production manager I’ve ever known used a huge magnetic board to schedule production planning details and monitor production linearity. An early focus on details, corrective actions and recovery planning was his management style. He would hold early morning meetings every day to status yesterday’s progress on the magnetic board and to establish the daily challenges. He was an expert at team dynamics and his people always new what they had to do and they were always provided the tools to get the job done. The combination of the magnetic board, the morning meetings and his team dynamics skills made this production manger an effective leader and an expert in achieving linear production.

Today many production managers are still trying to solve their linear production problem by pursuing a sophisticated computer software solution. Most companies are now using MRPII/ERP manufacturing systems to control their production environments. These systems do not provide a focus on the detail, up front tasks and milestones that are critical to linear production and consequently have not presented a solution to the “Hockey Stick Syndrome”. On the other hand, using an old magnetic board in this day and age of computer sophistication may not be an acceptable alternative. A good trade-off might be to develop a simple computer spread sheet specially designed to plan critical production milestones and to measure/monitor production linearity.

Using this daily schedule as the “bible”, the next step would be to retrain the “Knights in shining armor” to gradually shift their manufacturing paradigm from end-of-the-quarter “fire fighting” to daily proactive problem solving.

Finally, it is important to differentiate between shipment linearity and production linearity. In a widget, make-to-shelf manufacturing company that build substantial finish goods inventory and in highly engineered capitol equipment manufacturing companies the two linearity measurements will not be equal.

Shipment linearity may be more of a function of Sales’ bookings and customer’s preference rather than nonlinear production. Consequently, the measure of production linearity must be developed to measure the performance of the manufacturing process and not be influenced by Sales bookings or customer related shipment delays.

Oracle Production Scheduling Vs Manufacturing Scheduling

After Oracle’s acquisition of JD Edwards in 2006, Oracle has been promoting the best-in-class Production Scheduling (PS) software for all the obvious reasons. While more and more customers are adopting Oracle Production Scheduling to remove bottlenecks and improve performance on the shop floor, some manufacturing companies are still wondering why they should switch from Oracle’s Old Manufacturing Scheduling to Production Scheduling?

Here are the main reasons:

· Oracle PS is a versatile application that can be stand-alone or integrated with Manufacturing Planning and Execution Systems as opposed to Manufacturing Scheduling which mainly works in conjunction with the manufacturing execution system – Work in Process (WIP). With Production Scheduling’s close loop integration with Advanced Supply Chain Planning (ASCP), shop floor jobs can be best scheduled to both optimize resource planning and maximize service levels.

· Oracle PS with its powerful Key Performance Indicators (KPI) can be used as a tool to ensure that the scheduling scenario is meeting the corporate end objectives. Comparison of different schedule scenarios are instantly displayed in the Oracle Production Scheduling KPIs with Service Level, Inventory, Resource and Manufacturing utilization details. This makes decision analysis rather effortless. Many savvy schedulers using Oracle Manufacturing Scheduling had long wished for such powerful functionality.

· Oracle Production Scheduling can automatically detect resource floating bottlenecks as they move within a schedule. This understanding helps PS Solver deploy the most appropriate

Scheduling strategy to maximize the throughput and optimize the resource utilization.

On the other hand, resolving the bottleneck required a lot of constant tuning of the rules in the older Oracle Manufacturing Scheduling.

· Production Scheduling provides a number of views which can provide users with powerful analysis to support their decision making. Some of these views and user interfaces are:

o Production Pegging (Supply/Demand pegging with easy to drill down alert and root causes)

o Resource and Operations Gantt

o Resource and Item Graph

o Resource Gantt and Multi-Capacity Resource Graph

o Operations Editor and Graphical Routings

o Change over Editor

· Performance: Oracle PS uses smarter technology for constraint directed search which achieves the advantages of constraint-based scheduling with much better performance over traditional tools like Oracle Manufacturing Scheduling. This is another reason Production Scheduling becomes a tool of choice when production volume or production constraints are higher.

· Oracle PS is much simpler to setup yet delivers powerful scheduling strategies to optimize production without much trial and error. This reduces the total cost of ownership.


Oracle Production Scheduling is truly the best of breed next generation software which provides huge advantages over Oracle’s past Manufacturing scheduling tool. There are a number of additional PS capabilities (not covered in this short blog) that if implemented well, can make scheduling really productive.